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Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, just as his armies had overrun many countries of continental Europe. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships again. Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in Spain also ceded the rights to the lucrative asiento permission to sell slaves in Spanish America to Britain. Sudan was nominally made an Anglo-Egyptian condominium , but a British colony in reality. A joint force of British and Egyptian troops defeated the Mahdist Army in , and rebuffed an attempted French invasion at Fashoda in This blog publicises our digitisation projects and other activities. Under the Act, slaves were granted full emancipation after a period of four to six years of "apprenticeship". For a while it appeared that another war would be inevitable, but the two countries reached an agreement on their respective spheres of influence in the region in and on all outstanding matters in with the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente. Napoleonic Wars Britain was challenged again by France under Napoleon , in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations. The episode also had major political consequences, persuading the governments of both England and Scotland of the merits of a union of countries, rather than just crowns. The following year, in , the United States declared independence. Bermuda was settled and claimed by England as a result of the shipwreck of the Virginia Company's flagship , and in was turned over to the newly formed Somers Isles Company. In North America, France's future as a colonial power effectively ended with the recognition of British claims to Rupert's Land ,  and the ceding of New France to Britain leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control and Louisiana to Spain. Britain formally acquired the colony, and its large Afrikaner or Boer population in , having occupied it in to prevent its falling into French hands during the Flanders Campaign. A precious pigment, Tyrian purple was used as a dye for the imperial robes of certain Roman emperors. Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: A colourful diagram relating to music, in De artibus ac disciplinis liberalium litterarum by Cassiodorus, 9th—10th century: The Slavery Abolition Act , passed the following year, abolished slavery in the British Empire on 1 August , finally bringing the Empire into line with the law in the UK with the exception of St. A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the East Indies archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and by , in terms of sales, the British company had overtaken the Dutch. The path to independence for the white colonies of the British Empire began with the Durham Report. Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations' colonial infrastructures to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies. Since , transportation to the American colonies had been a penalty for various offences in Britain, with approximately one thousand convicts transported per year across the Atlantic. The dye was also used to colour whole pages in high-status manuscripts. Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleigh , who was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in
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