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An unfinished stone wall was etched with the profiles of columns and moldings, and the wall was never finished so the drawing was not erased: Architecture of ancient Greece , List of ancient architectural records , and List of ancient Greek and Roman roofs The ancient Greeks , like the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians, tended to build most of their common buildings out of mud brick, leaving no record behind them. Very prominent buildings were roofed in stone tiles, which mimicked the form of their terracotta counterparts. The first mud bricks , formed with the hands rather than wooden moulds, belong to the late Neolithic period and were found in Jericho. The largest is the Great Pyramid of Giza which remained the tallest structure in the world for years see List of tallest freestanding structures in the world. Aerial view of the Ramasseum in Thebes with its associated adobe structures A copy of a wall painting in the tomb of Rekhmire between and BC. Egyptian pyramid construction techniques. Extensive storehouses with mud-brick vaults also survive, all constructed with sloping courses to avoid the need for formwork. During the Bronze Age the corbelled arch came into use such as for beehive tombs. The techniques used to move massive blocks used in pyramids and temples have been subject to extensive debate. Babylon ,the archaeological site in , before major reconstruction work undertaken by Sadam Hussein Dried bricks stacked ready for firing without the use of a kiln. Major technical achievement is evidenced by the construction of great cities such as Uruk and Ur. The very simplest shelters, tents, leave no traces. Achievements[ edit ] The pyramids are chiefly impressive for their enormous size and the staggering manpower that must have been employed in their construction. Their surveying skills were exceptional, enabling them to set out the incredibly exact optical corrections of buildings like the Parthenon , although the methods used remain a mystery. The now ruinous remains are of post and lintel construction and include massive sandstone lintels which were located on supporting uprights by means of mortise and tenon joints; the lintels themselves being end-jointed by the use of tongue and groove joints. Ancient Egyptian technology Although the Egyptians achieved extraordinary feats of engineering, they appear to have done so with relatively primitive technology.
Because of this, what little we can say about very early construction is mostly conjecture and based on what we know about the way nomadic hunter-gatherers and herdsmen in remote areas build shelters today. These tools were used by people to cut such as with the hand axe , chopper , adze , and celt. Babylon ,the archaeological site in , before major reconstruction work undertaken by Sadam Hussein Dried bricks stacked ready for firing without the use of a kiln. Gallery of Neolithic tools[ edit ] Man using a hand axe A Neolithic stone axe with a wooden handle. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Neolithic reconstructions. The tools available were made from natural materials including bone , antler, hide, stone , wood, grasses, animal fibers, and the use of water. The first mud bricks , formed with the hands rather than wooden moulds, belong to the late Neolithic period and were found in Jericho. Heavy loads were moved on boats, sledges a primitive sled or on rollers. Architecture of ancient Greece , List of ancient architectural records , and List of ancient Greek and Roman roofs The ancient Greeks , like the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians, tended to build most of their common buildings out of mud brick, leaving no record behind them. Also to scrape , chop such as with a flake tool , pound, pierce, roll, pull, leaver, and carry. Simpler decoration, such as fluting on columns, was simply left until the drums of the columns were cut in place. Imhotep , who lived circa — BC, is credited with being the first recorded architect and engineer. Ancient Egyptian technology Although the Egyptians achieved extraordinary feats of engineering, they appear to have done so with relatively primitive technology. Detail of the Ishtar Gate BC showing the exceptionally fine glazed brickwork of the later period. Drawings survive on clay tablets from later periods showing that buildings were set out on brick modules. In addition to living in caves and rock shelters , the first buildings were simple shelters, tents like the Inuit's tupiq , and huts sometimes built as pit-houses meant to suit the basic needs of protection from the elements and sometimes as fortifications for safety such as the crannog. As opposed to the cultures of ancient Mesopotamia which built in brick, the pharaohs of Egypt built huge structures in stone. Fired bricks began to be employed with lime mortar. The engineering problems involved were chiefly to do with the transport of blocks, sometimes over long distances, their movement into location and exact alignment. Copper and bronze were used for the same types of tools as stone such as axes and chisels, but the new, less brittle, more durable material cut better. For example, the first bridges made by humans were probably just wooden logs placed across a stream and later timber trackways. They transported massive stones over great distances using rollers, ropes and sledges hauled by large numbers of workers. Another fine example is the ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil in modern Iran. Rectangular and square bricks were both common. The Ziggurat of Ur is an outstanding building of the period, despite major reconstruction work.
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