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During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi , moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari. Nickel and copper have been mined at Selebi-Phikwe near the Motloutse River since Botswana has had the unusual problems, for a developing country, of a government budget surplus running into billions of dollars and excess capital lying unutilized in private banks. The Bakwena, Bangwaketse, Bangwato and Batawana cooperated to control the lucrative ivory trade, and then used the proceeds to import horses and guns, which in turn enabled them to establish control over what is now Botswana. Traditional architecture of thatch roofing and clay walls has given way to corrugated metal roofing and brick walls. A European-African advisory council was formed in , and the constitution established a consultative legislative council. In a coalition of Tswana chiefdoms led by Sechele I resisted Afrikaner incursions, and after about eight years of intermittent tensions and hostilities, eventually came to a peace agreement in Potchefstroom in The smaller diamond town of Orapa is enclosed by high security fences and is jointly managed by the government of Botswana and De Beers S. Elsewhere, Precambrian rock formations predominate. Early history[ edit ] Starting fire by hand. The rains are almost entirely limited to summer downpours between December and March, which also mark the season for plowing and planting. Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, and used their military prowess to raid their neighbors. Meanwhile, the rate of labour migration abroad has been reduced by a combination of restrictions by South Africa and increased employment opportunities at home.
Nickel and copper have been mined at Selebi-Phikwe near the Motloutse River since Both speak Khoisan languages and hunted, gathered, and traded over long distances. A long-running dispute over the northern border with Namibia 's Caprivi Strip was the subject of a ruling by the International Court of Justice in December Relatively few rural households benefit from cattle sales: However, the UK began to consult with their inhabitants as to their wishes. Within southeastern Botswana the other main ethnic identity besides Tswana, that of the Khalagari Western Sotho , has become so incorporated as to be almost indistinguishable from the Tswana. White settlement in Botswana, consisting of some Afrikaners and fewer English settled in border farms, totaled fewer than 3, people in the colonial period. During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi , moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari. A small stock exchange has been set up. Birdlife is prolific , with more than species. Land Botswana is bounded by Namibia to the west and north the Caprivi Strip , Zambia and Zimbabwe to the northeast, and South Africa to the southeast and south. The point at which the borders of Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe meet in the middle of the river has never been precisely determined. Even in its southwestern corner, where there are some bare sand dunes, the vegetation is more characteristic of dry steppe than desert. Only after , when the Amandebele moved into western Zimbabwe , did this threat subside. But, especially since the s, traditional settlements have been sliced through by modern roads and facilities such as schools and offices, as well as shopping malls and bars. Trade Domestic trade patterns within Botswana are dominated by large, mostly foreign-owned wholesale operations and large foreign retailers in urban areas, though there is also an increasing proliferation of small stores owned by citizens. Botswana has a great variety of reptiles and amphibians, of which more than species have been described in detail. Manufacturing Industrial development in Botswana has been limited by the high costs of power and water, the lack of appropriate management and labour skills, and the small domestic market. The Botswana economy is regulated by the central bank and a strong Ministry of Finance and Development Planning. Economy Botswana has a free market economy with a strong tradition of central government planning to provide infrastructure for private investment. The Zambezi River border with Zambia is only several hundred yards long. The villages and traditional towns of Botswana are still basically laid out around the kgotla courtyard and cattle kraal corral of traditional rulers and are subdivided into wards, each of which mimics the village or town plan with its own central kgotla and kraal. Christianity became the de facto official religion in all the chiefdoms by World War I. Some one-third adhere to traditional beliefs as their primary religious orientation. Various schemes—so far unsuccessful—have been attempted to improve range management. Manufacturing activity up to the s largely consisted of meat processing at Lobatse in the south. They include communities with their own headmen and livestock, as well as poorer groups employed by Tswana and white cattle farmers.
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