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Cadwaladr presided over a period of consolidation and devoted much time to the Church, earning the title "Bendigaid" for "Blessed". Rhun returned to Gwynedd and the rest of his reign was far less eventful. He was succeeded by his son, Beli ap Rhun in c. There are several legends about his life concerning miracles performed either by him or in his presence. Eventually he was defeated by Harold Godwinson in and later killed by his own men in a deal to secure peace with England. In a later letter to the Byzantine emperor , Henry probably recalled these experiences when he wrote, "A people called Welsh, so bold and ferocious that, when unarmed, they do not fear to encounter an armed force, being ready to shed their blood in defence of their country, and to sacrifice their lives for renown. They were helped by internal strife following the killing of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn in by his cousin Trahaearn ap Caradog. The stability of Gruffudd's long reign allowed for Gwynedd's Welsh to plan for the future without fear that home and harvest would "go to the flames" from invaders. By normal custom Idwal's crown should have passed to his sons, Ieuaf and Iago ab Idwal , but Hywel Dda intervened and sent Iago and Ieuaf into exile in Ireland and established himself as ruler over Gwynedd until his death in when the House of Aberffraw was restored. Gruffudd's remains were interred in a tomb in the presbytery of Bangor Cathedral. However, Gruffudd was forced to render homage and fealty and pay a heavy fine, though he lost no land or prestige. Elidyr was killed in the attempt but his death was then avenged by his relatives who ravaged the coast of Arfon. Stone churches in particular were built across Gwynedd, with so many limewashed that "Gwynedd was bespangled with them as is the firmament with stars". However, It was a pyrrhic victory as the battle left Hywel ab Ithel mortally wounded. Trahaearn seized the throne but was soon challenged by Gruffudd ap Cynan , the exiled grandson of Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig who had been living in the Norse—Gael stronghold of Dublin. Owain Fradwr , among the Welsh. One of these, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn , originally from Powys, displaced the Aberffraw line from Gwynedd making himself ruler there, and by was able to make himself king of most of Wales.
No written records are preserved from the Britons of southern Scotland and northern England and it is very likely that Merfyn Frych brought many of these legends as well as his pedigree with him when he came to north Wales. The Welsh of Gwynedd remained conscious of their Romano-British heritage and an affinity with Rome survived long after the Empire retreated from Britain, particularly with the use of Latin in writing and sustaining the Christian religion. In a rare show of common interest, it appears Gwynedd and neighbouring Kingdom of Powys acted in concert to rebuff the Anglican advance but were defeated at the Battle of Chester in He became engaged in an initially disastrous campaign against Northumbria where following a series of epic defeats he was confined first to Anglesey and then just to Puffin Island before being forced into exile across the Irish Sea to Dublin — a place which would come to host many royal refugees from Gwynedd. Rhodri's eldest son Anarawd ap Rhodri inherited Gwynedd and would firmly establish the princely House of Aberffraw that would come to rule Gwynedd with but a few interruptions until In Henry II quarrelled with Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury , causing growing divisions between the king's supporters and the archbishop's supporters. They were helped by internal strife following the killing of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn in by his cousin Trahaearn ap Caradog. On account of these deeds, he and his son Cadwaladr appear to have been considered the last two High Kings of Britain. The House of Cunedda — as the direct descendants of Cunedda are known — eventually expired in the male line in upon the death of Hywel ap Rhodri Molwynog and, as John Edward Lloyd put it, "a stranger possessed the throne of Gwynedd. When Gwgon drowned without heir in , Rhodri became steward over the kingdom and able to install his son, Cadell ap Rhodri , as a subject king. He is attributed in some old stories as hosting the first Eisteddfod and he is one of five Celtic British kings castigated for their sins by the contemporary Christian writer Gildas who referred to him as Maglocunus, meaning 'Prince-Hound' in Brittonic in De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae. He became powerful enough to present a real menace to England and annexed some neighbouring parts after several victories over English armies. Owain and Cadwaladr came to blows in when Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Prince Anarawd ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth, Owain's ally and future son-in-law, on the eve of Anarawd's wedding to Owain's daughter. Idwal and his brother Elisedd were both killed in battle against Edmund's forces. In a later letter to the Byzantine emperor , Henry probably recalled these experiences when he wrote, "A people called Welsh, so bold and ferocious that, when unarmed, they do not fear to encounter an armed force, being ready to shed their blood in defence of their country, and to sacrifice their lives for renown. During that peace he established a mighty kingdom. Early Welsh literature contains a wealth of stories seeking to explain place-names, and doubtless the story is propaganda aimed at justifying the right of Cunedda and his descendants to territories beyond the borders of the original Kingdom of Gwynedd. Trahaearn seized the throne but was soon challenged by Gruffudd ap Cynan , the exiled grandson of Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig who had been living in the Norse—Gael stronghold of Dublin. Eventually he was defeated by Harold Godwinson in and later killed by his own men in a deal to secure peace with England. In Trahaearn was killed by Gruffudd in battle and the ancient line of Rhodri Mawr was restored. Asaph, then further west, clearing the road for Henry II to enter into Rhuddlan "ingloriously". Owain Fradwr , among the Welsh. All sources agree that he was the son of Esyllt, heiress and niece of the aforementioned Hywel ap Rhodri Molwynog, last of the House of Cunedda, and that his male line went back to the Hen Ogledd to Llywarch Hen , a first cousin of Urien and thus a direct descendant of Coel Hen. Over the course of the next three years, Gruffudd was able to recover upper Gwynedd to the Conwy , defeating Hugh, Earl of Chester. By now, Owain's enemies had joined Henry II's camp, enemies such as his wayward brother Cadwaladr and in particular the support of Madog of Powys.
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