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icrics.org #18 - Absolute radiometric age dating of rocks and geologic materials
Thus we can date lava by K-Ar dating to determine its age. As a result of atomic bomb usage, 14C was added to the atmosphere artificially. It is not necessary for this increase in age to happen all at once; many events of this nature can gradually increase the K-Ar ages of rocks. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. So one sees that there is a tremendous potential for age increases in this way. This type of lava cools quickly, leaving little time for crystals to form, and forms basalt. I don't know how we can be sure that a crystal will exclude argon or other daughter substances except by growing it in the laboratory under many conditions. Thus radiometric dating methods appear to give evidence that the earth and meteorites are old, if one accepts the fact that decay rates have been constant. New techniques have been devised, tested, and applied. The carbon dioxide mixes throughout the atmosphere, dissolves in the oceans, and via photosynthesis enters the food chain to become part of all plants and animals. Encyclopaedia Britannica 10, p. This shows that rocks can adsorb a large amount of argon relative to the argon needed to give them old K-Ar ages, and also suggests that old K-Ar ages can be produced by external argon from the mantle. In a single rock there may be mutually contaminating, potassium- bearing minerals. It is true that by using additional isotopes if they are sufficiently abundant and do not fractionate , one can often detect mixings of multiple sources. Some geochronologists believe that a possible cause of excess argon is that argon diffuses into mineral progressively with time. A Cretaceous time scale. We will also get a distribution of averaged values for samples in each period.
I also question the assertion that argon, for example, is excluded from certain minerals when they crystallize and never enters later on. Zircons exclude lead, for example, so U-Pb dating can be applied to zircon to determine the time since lava cooled. It can, and has been, tested in innumerable ways since the 19th century, in some cases by physically tracing distinct units laterally for hundreds or thousands of kilometres and looking very carefully to see if the order of events changes. Also, the uncertainty in the branching ratio of potassium decay might mean that there is a fudge factor in K-Ar ages of up to a third, and that the occasional agreements between K-Ar ages and other ages are open to question. Both of these tend on the average to have wide biostrategraphic limits, meaning that a large spread of ages will be regarded as non-anomalous. Taking the mean of this and the upper limit found above from the ratio of uranium to lead, we obtain 4 x years as a rough approximation to the age of the Earth's crust. Also, as the rock deforms under pressure, more cracks are likely to form and old ones are likely to close up, providing more opportunity for argon and other gases to enter. In Buckland was a scriptural geologist. It's the responsibility of the geologist to show that such mixings have not occurred. They are 12C, 13C and 14C. The branching ratio that is often used is 0. The problems inherent in radiometric dating often cause them to be so unreliable that they contradict one another rather than validating each other. So this argon that is being produced will leave some rocks and enter others. Also, since some rocks hold the Ar40 stronger than others, some rocks will have a large apparent age, others smaller ages, though they may actually be the same age. Although geologists can and do legitimately quibble over the exact age of a particular fossil or formation e. Thus one would know that any strontium that is present had to come from the parent rubidium, so by computing the ratio and knowing the half life, one can compute the age. Argon diffuses from mineral to mineral with great ease. The half-life of 14C Libby and his colleagues first discovered that this decay occurs at a constant rate. Even in complex situations of multiple deposition, deformation, erosion, deposition, and repeated events, it is possible to reconstruct the sequence of events. Patterson produces accurate "primeval" lead isotopic measurements from minerals of the Canyon Diablo meteorite which contain very little less than ten parts per billion uranium. This is when the dinosaurs are assumed to have become extinct. The observation that fossils occur in a consistent succession is known as the "principle of faunal and floral succession". The uncertainties inherent in radiometric dating are disturbing to geologists and evolutionists This is about one ten millionth of the mass of the rock, a very tiny percentage. Instead he postulated numerous antediluvian catastrophes.
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