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Radiometric Dating Methods
Rocks from deeper in the crust would show this to a lesser degree. A ratio of infinity that is, all daughter and no parent means an age of essentially infinity. Non-Radiometric Dating Methods for the Past , Years We will digress briefly from radiometric dating to talk about other dating techniques. The age of the carbon in the rock is different from that of the carbon in the air and makes carbon dating data for those organisms inaccurate under the assumptions normally used for carbon dating. There are a few categories of artifacts that can be dated using carbon; however, they cannot be more 50, years old. Thus modern lava flows are not subject to the same mechanism of artificial increases in their K-Ar ages as are ancient ones. Tree rings do not provide continuous chronologies beyond 11, years ago because a rather abrupt change in climate took place at that time, which was the end of the last ice age. Thus it is clear that argon enters rock easily. We will have to restrict ourselves to places where Gi is exposed, to avoid having to dig deep within the earth. We also need to know that no parent or daughter has entered or left the system in the meantime. Walcott takes a detailed look at the Paleozoic sediments of the Cordilleran Sea just east of the Sierra Nevadas , considering such things as the land area supplying sediments and the grain sizes of the sediments. But argon 40 coming up from the mantle and diffusing into a mineral would not be detectable in this way, because it has a higher ratio of argon 40 to argon Nier speculates that these represent approximately the "primeval" Pb isotope ratios. For instance, carbon has a half-life of 5, years. Previously, dating of anthropology sites had to rely on dating of geologic layers above and below the artifacts. Drastic changes, albeit not as all embracing as those envisioned by the catastrophist, occur from time to time.
One can assume that at the beginning of the flood, many volcanoes erupted and the waters became enriched in Ar Thus one would know that any strontium that is present had to come from the parent rubidium, so by computing the ratio and knowing the half life, one can compute the age. The early period was one of developing knowledge and technique and of assessing the ages of individual rocks and formations. Dickin suggests that mixings may contribute to such isochrons. Henke criticizes my concern that argon can move in and out of minerals: Henke states that hornblendes retain argon very well, but then later says that they can easily absorb excess argon. Changes in the Earth's magnetic field are well documented. All of these special problems as well as others can produce contradictory and erroneous results for the various radiometric dating systems. These represent the first publication of the right value by a valid calculation. A small amount of data beyond 40, years not shown in Fig. A number of processes could cause the parent substance to be depleted at the top of the magma chamber, or the daughter product to be enriched, both of which would cause the lava erupting earlier to appear very old according to radiometric dating, and lava erupting later to appear younger. Thus radiometric dating methods appear to give evidence that the earth and meteorites are old, if one accepts the fact that decay rates have been constant. This could move the "ages" to tremendously high values. This could cause trouble for Rb-Sr dating. It seems reasonable to me that the large radiometric ages are simply a consequence of mixing, and not related to ages at all, at least not necessarily the ages of the rocks themselves. In fact, tens of thousands of uranium-series dates have been performed on cave formations around the world. In the last fifteen years, people have also used cosmic ray exposure ages to date rock surfaces on the Earth. There is far too much Ar40 in the earth for more than a small fraction of it to have been formed by radioactive decay of K It would really be nice if geologists would just do a double blind study sometime to find out what the distributions of the ages are. The percentage of Ar40 is even less for younger rocks. Thus we can get an apparent correlation of different methods without much of a real correlation in nature. The other three, Carbon, beryllium, and chlorine are produced by cosmic rays--high energy particles and photons in space--as they hit the Earth's upper atmosphere. If one does not know the geologic period of a rock by other means, then of course one is likely to date it to find out, and then of course the date agrees with the geologic period and this will not be seen as anomalous. It is also possible that each crater gives a scatter of dates, and the best ones were selected. Using thermodynamic principles and measurements of thermal conductivity of rocks, Kelvin calculated that the earth consolidated from a molten state 98 million years ago. This is formed when lava is sticky and bubbles of gas in it explode.
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